In a dramatic few weeks in August 1917 Dunmore became the centre of a naval espionage operation that saw the destruction of a U Boat, the rescue and interrogation of her captain and a salvage operation to lift the boat from the depths of Waterford harbour. But another event happened during this time, the damage of a minesweeper off Creaden Head and the death of one of her crew. The anniversary of this event is this coming Tuesday.
The destruction of UC44 at Dunmore East on the 4th August 1917 is relatively well known locally as it was commemorated by the Barony of Gaultier Historical Society last year on its centenary. Whilst laying mines in the harbour she struck her own mine and plunged to the floor of the harbour. Three of her 29 crew escaped the sub, but only one, the Commander Kurt Tebbenjohannes, survived. Whilst he was transported to London for interrogation and a salvage crew arrived in Dunmore to attempt a daring feat of retrieval, a lesser known but vitally important event was happening in the harbour; mine clearance.
|Accessed from https://www.clydeships.co.uk/view.php?year_built=1916&builder=94&ref=6033&vessel=HALDON|
Mines were a constant hazard to shipping in the first world war in the harbour. To counteract the threats they posed the dangerous work of mine sweeping was required. Underlying the dangers I had recorded the loss of two off Dunmore already. UC44 had laid her mines in a line from Creaden Head seawards. Many, me among them, would probably think in trying to destroy ships, the mines would be laid in a line across the mouth of the harbour. However it makes much more tactical sense to lay them in the line described, as all ships would have called close to Dunmore to collect a pilot, and then proceed towards Creaden Head. (1)
Community notice board:
I'm unsure if more than one ship was employed in the work that August, but I'd presume two. But one of these mine sweepers was the Haldon; an Ascot or Racecourse class of paddle minesweeper. The Haldon was purposely built for the work by Dunlop Bremner Co Ltd of the Glasgow. She was launched on the 29th March 1916.
The work of such ships was probably countless hours of slow sweeps of vacant waters, interspersed by short periods of tension and drama on locating a mine. Here's a short description of the work:
"Early British minesweeping was limited to the towing of a ground chain from two spars set across the stern of a vessel but this resulted in an extremely narrow swept path and the chain was easily snagged by seabed obstructions. The next development was a serrated wire sweep towed between two ships. Otter boards, used by fishermen to keep open the mouths of their nets, were employed to increase the width of the bight of wire in contact with the seabed. This simple design frequently became snagged on rocks and wrecks on the seabed but technicians based at HMS Vernon overcame this problem with the introduction of redesigned otter boards known as kite otters. These were not only used to divert the ends of the sweep laterally but others could be rotated 90 degrees and used to depress the ships' ends of the sweep wire to a chosen depth. This was the basis for the British Type Actaeon or 'A' sweep used for almost all Royal Navy minesweeping operations during WW I. It was effective for depths down to 50 fathoms." (2)
I would imagine the mine sweepers swung into action very quickly. Although they could not know it, at least seven mines had been laid before the accident. Fatefully it would appear to have been the last mine to be cleared on August 7th, located close to Creaden Head, that would lead to the damage to the Haldon. Although I have no details as to exactly what happened, one common occurrence seems to have been caused by mines slipping under the ship along the towing cable and detonating. The Haldon although badly damaged survived the war. A deck hand was not so fortunate.
John Gowans was previously recorded as having died as a result of illness. It was subsequently clarified by family members that he was killed in action on the minesweeper that day of Tuesday August 7th off Creaden Head. John was twenty seven, from the fishing village of St Monans in Fife, Scotland. He was the son of William and Agnes Gowans and is buried at Cobh old church cemetery. But is also remembered on his families headstone at his local cemetery.
|With thanks to Frank Murphy|
While searching for the details of John I was struck by the similarities between his home place and Dunmore. A fishing village, where men set out clear in their minds of the risks associated with the ocean, but resolute. From contemporary local newspapers it seems the Gowans of St Monans shared in that tradition, with one at least receiving an award for life saving of fellow fishermen. I have no information as yet on his career with the navy, no notion of his life aboard the ship or whether he ever set foot in Waterford or Dunmore East. Knowing so little also set me to wonder would anyone light a candle to him at this stage? Would anyone remember him in their prayers? Would anyone place flowers upon his grave? Another victim of the war to end all wars and another name that is deserving of remembrance.
|A grey granite celtic cross is the war memorial at St Monans,|
John Gowan is listed amongst the sailors. Thanks to Brian Moyes
(1) Details gleamed from last years Friend and Foe seminar
(2) Accessed from https://www.navy-net.co.uk/community/threads/how-did-minesweepers-operate-in-ww1.72601/
I want to thank Eddie Mulligan, Frank Murphy and Brian Moyes for assistance with details of this mornings blog
I publish a blog about Waterford Harbours maritime heritage each Friday.
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